Šta je to Zavetna teologija i da li je biblijska?




Pitanje: Šta je to Zavetna teologija i da li je biblijska?

Odgovor:
Zavetna teologije nije toliko ‘teologija’ u smislu da predstavlja sistematičan set doktrina koliko je okvir za tumačenje Pisma. Obično se posmatra u kontrastu sa drugim okvirom tumačenja Pisma koji se zove ‘Dispenzacionalna teologija,’ ili ‘Dispenzacionalizam.’ Dispenzacionalizam je trenutno naj popularniji metod za tumačenje Biblije u američkom evanđeoskom svetu. I to je tako od druge polovine 19. do 21 veka. Zavetna teologija, međutim ostaje osnovni okvir tumačenja za Protenstatizam još od vremena Reformacije, i je metod koji omiljen za Reformatore i Kalviniste.

Dispenzacionalizam posmatra Sveto Pismo kao razvoj od (obično) sedam serija ‘dispenenzacije’( dispenzacija može da se definiše kao određen način koji Bog koristi u odnosu sa ljudima i stvorenjem tokom datog perioda u otkupljujućoj istoriji. Zavetna teologija gleda na Pismo iz perpektive zaveta. Zvetna teologija definiše dva najvažnija: zavet dela ( ZD) i zavet blagodati (ZB). Spominje se ponekad i treći zavet, zavet otkupljenja (ZO), koji logično prethodi druga dva zaveta. Govorićemo o svakom od ovih zakona. Važno je da imamo na umu da svi drugi zaveti opisani u Bibliji (kao što su, zavet sklopljen sa Nojom, Avramom, Mojsijem, Davidom i Novi zavet ) su proizašli iz jednog od dvata , ili zaveta po delima ili zaveta blagodati.

Neka da proučimo različite elemente Zavetne teologije tako što ćemo započeti sa zavetom otkupljenja, koji logično prethodi druga dva zaveta. Prema Zavetnoj teologiji, ZO je zavet koji je sključen između tri Ličnosti Svetog Troijstva sa ciljem da izbere, da da otup i spasi izabranu grupu ljudi za spasenje i večni život. Kao što je jedan poznat teolog rekao, u zavetu otkupljenja, “Otac je izabrao nevestu za Svog Sina.” I dok ZO se ne nalazi eksplicitno u Pismu, Pismo jasno pokazuje večnu prirodu plana za spasenje (Efescima 1:3-14; 3:11; 2. Solunjanima 2:13; 2. Timoteju 1:9; Jakov 2:5; 1. Peterova 1:2). Čak šta više, Isus često govori za svoju misliju kao za ispunjenje Očeve volje (Jovan 5:3, 43; 6:38-40; 17:4-12). Da je spasenje izabranih bila Božija namera od samog početka stvaranja, je nešto koje ne može da bude osporavano; ZO samo formalizuje večni plan zavetnim jezikom.

Iz istorijske perspective otkupljenja, zavet dela je prvi zavet koji vidimo u Pismu. Kada je Bog stvorio čoveka, postavio ga je u Edemski vrt i mu je dao jednu jednostavnu zapovest: “ I zapreti Gospod Bog čoveku govoreći: Jedi slobodno sa svakog drveta u vrtu;17 Ali s drveta od znanja dobra i zla, s njega ne jedi; jer u koji dan okusiš s njega, umrećeš” (1. Mojsijeva 2:16-17). Možemo da vidimo da se zavetni jezik podrazumeva u ovoj zapovesti. Bog je postavio Adama i Evu u Edemski vrt i obećao im večni život i prosperitet sve dok su poslušni Božijim zapovestima. Život je nagrada za poslušnost i smrt je kazna za neposlušanje. To je zavetni jezik.

Neki učeni, u zavetu dela vide formu onog što se zove Sizeren-vazalni zavet. U ovoj vrsti zaveta, sizeren (t.j. car ili vladar) bi ponudio uslove zaveta svom vazalu (t.j. potčinjenom). Sizeren obezbeđuje blagoslov i zaštitu u zamenu za vazalski danak. U slučaju zaveta dela, Bog (Sizeren) obećava večni život i blagoslov za celo čovečanstvo (vazala predstavlj Adam, kao glava cele ljudske rase), u zamenu za čovekovu poslušnost prema uslovima postavljenim u zavetu (t.j., da ne jedeš ot drveta..). Možemo da vidimo sličnu strukturu u davanju Starog zaveta Izraelu kroz Mojsija. Izrael je napravio zavet sa Bogom na Sinaju. Bog će dati Obećanu zemlju, rekonstruisani Edemski vrt, ’ (“zemlja u kojoj teče med i mleko”), i Njegov blagoslov i zaštitu protiv svih neprijatelja Izraela u zamenu za Izraelsku poslušnost uslovima postavljenim tim zavetom. Kazna za narušenje zakona je bila izgnanje iz zemlje (što se i desilo porobljavanjem Severnog Carstva 722 pre nove ere i Južnog Carstva 586 pre nove ere).

Kada Adam nije uspeo da održi zavet dela, Bog je uspostavio treći zavet, koji se zove, zavet blagodati. Kroz zavet blagodati (ZB), Bog nudi grešnicima (oni koji nisu uspeli da održe zavet blagodati) večni život i spasenje kroz veru u Isusa Hrista. Vidimo da Bog daje ovaj zavet balgodati odmah posle pada, kada Bog prorokuje o “ženinom semenu” u 1. Mojsijevoj 3:15. I dok je zavet dela uslovan i obećava blagoslov za poslušnost i prokletstvo za neposlušnost, zavet blagodati je bezuslovan i se daje besplatno na osnovu Božije blagodati. Zavet blagodati preuzima formu starovekovnog ugovora o poklanjanju zemlje, u kome bi car dao zemlju nekom kao poklon, bez bilo kakvih uslova. Neko može da kaže da je vera uslov za zavet blagodati. One can argue that faith is a condition of the covenant of grace. Ostoji mnogo mesta u Bibliji gde se čovek podstiče da ostane veran do kraja, tako da u stvari, održanje vere je uslov za ZB. Ali nas Biblija jasno uči da je čak i vera spasenja dar od Boga (Efescima 2:8-9).

Možemo da vidimo da je zavet blagodati manifestovan kroz različite bezuslovne zavete koje Bog sklapa sa Biblijskim ličnostima. Zavet koji Bog sklapa sa Avramom (da bude njihov Bog i za Avrame i njegove naslednike da budu Njegov narod) je produžetak zaveta blagodati. Zavet sa Davidom (da će Davidov naslednik zauvek vladati kao car) je takođe produžetak zaeta blagodati. I na kraju, Novi zavet jeposlednji produžetak zaveta blagodati kao što Bog piše svoj zakon na našim srcima i u potpunosti oprašta naše grehe. One thing that should be apparent as we look at these various OT covenants is that they all find their fulfillment in Jesus Christ. The promise to Abraham to bless all the nations was fulfilled in Christ. The Davidic king who will eternally rule over God’s people was also fulfilled in Christ, and the New Covenant was obviously fulfilled in Christ. Even in the Old Covenant there are hints of the CG as all of the OT sacrifices and rituals point forward to the saving work of Christ, our great High Priest (Hebrews 8–10). This is why Jesus can say in the Sermon on the Mount that He came not to abolish the Law, but to fulfill it (Matthew 5:17).

We also see the CG in action in the OT when God spares His people the judgment that their repeated sin deserves. Even though the stipulations of the Mosaic Covenant (an application of the CW) promised God’s judgment upon Israel for their disobedience to His commands, God deals patiently with His covenant people. This is usually accompanied by the phrase “God remembered the covenant he made with Abraham” (2 Kings 13:23; Psalm 105; Isaiah 29:22; 41:8); God’s promise to fulfill the covenant of grace (which by definition is a one-sided covenant) oftentimes overrode his right to enforce the covenant of works.

That’s a brief description of covenant theology and how it interprets Scripture through the lens of the covenant. A question that sometimes arises regarding covenant theology is whether or not the CG supplants or supersedes the CW. In other words, is the CW obsolete since the Old Covenant is obsolete (Hebrews 8:13)? The Old (Mosaic) covenant, while an application of the CW, is not the CW. Again, the CW goes all the way back to Eden when God promised life for obedience and death for disobedience. The CW is further elaborated in the Ten Commandments, in which God again promises life and blessing for obedience and death and punishment for disobedience. The Old Covenant is more than just the moral law codified in the Ten Commandments. The Old Covenant includes the rules and regulations regarding the worship of God. It also includes the civil law that governed the nation of Israel during the theocracy and monarchy. With the coming of Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah of the OT, many aspects of the Old Covenant become obsolete because Jesus fulfilled the Old Covenant types and figures (again see Hebrews 8–10). The Old Covenant represented the “types and shadows,” whereas Christ represents the “substance” (Colossians 2:17). Again, Christ came to fulfill the law (Matthew 5:17). As Paul says, “For no matter how many promises God has made, they are "Yes" in Christ. And so through him the ‘Amen’ is spoken by us to the glory of God” (2 Corinthians 1:20).

However, this does not abrogate the covenant of works as codified in the moral law. God demanded holiness from His people in the OT (Leviticus 11:44) and still demands holiness from His people in the NT (1 Peter 1:16). As such, we are still obligated to fulfill the stipulations of the CW. The good news is that Jesus Christ, the last Adam and our covenant Head, perfectly fulfilled the demands of the CW and that perfect righteousness is the reason why God can extend the CG to the elect. Romans 5:12-21 describes the situation between the two ‘federal’ heads of the human race. Adam represented the human race in the Garden and failed to uphold the CW, thereby plunging him and his posterity into sin and death. Jesus Christ stood as man’s representative, from His temptation in the wilderness all the way to Calvary, and perfectly fulfilled the CW. That is why Paul can say, “As in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Corinthians 15:22).

In conclusion, Covenant Theology views the Scriptures as manifestations of either the CW or the CG. The entire story of redemptive history can be seen as God unfolding the CG from its nascent stages (Genesis 3:15) all the way through its fruition in Christ. Covenant Theology is, therefore, a very Christocentric way of looking at Scripture because it sees the OT as the promise of Christ and the NT as the fulfillment in Christ. Some have accused Covenant Theology as teaching what is called “Replacement Theology” (i.e., the Church replaces Israel). This couldn’t be further from the truth. Unlike Dispensationalism, Covenant Theology does not see a sharp distinction between Israel and the Church. Israel constituted the people of the God in the OT, and the Church (which is made up of Jew and Gentile) constitutes the people of God in the NT; both just make up one people of God (Ephesians 2:11-20). The Church doesn’t replace Israel; the Church is Israel and Israel is the Church (Galatians 6:16). All people who exercise the same faith as Abraham are part of the covenant people of God (Galatians 3:25-29).

Many more things can be said regarding Covenant Theology, but the important thing to keep in mind is that Covenant Theology is an interpretive gird for understanding the Scriptures. As we have seen, it is not the only interpretive grid for reading Scripture. Covenant Theology and Dispensationalism have many differences, and sometimes lead to opposite conclusions regarding certain secondary doctrines, but both adhere to the essentials of the Christian faith: Salvation is by grace alone, through faith alone in Christ alone, and to God alone be the glory!



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'Šta je to Zavetna teologija i da li je biblijska?